Inclusion Resources

IDP has contributed and supported the development of several key reports that support the inclusion of marginalized groups in international development and humanitarian aid. In addition, IDP has produced tools and guidance resources, and others have published peer reviewed articles on IDP’s work.

IDP Resources

Disability-Inclusive Pre-Primary Education White Paper

Who are learners with disabilities? Why is pre-primary (PPE) education so important for children with disabilities? What barriers often exclude them from PPE, and how can these barriers be removed? Learn some of the answers in a USAID-published white paper written by IDP staff.

Position Paper on Deaf Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Inclusive Development Partners (IDP) is committed to disseminating information and practices that are effective and evidence-based and to illuminating practices that are harmful and should not be used in the education of children with disabilities. This paper outlines IDP’s position related to deaf education practices.

Trauma Informed Instruction

Inclusive teaching strategies grounded in a Universal Design for Learning (UDL) approach benefit students with and without disabilities.  Students have been exposed to trauma – whether in crisis and conflict settings, from abuse, accidents, or other reasons – may have additional learning or support needs that benefit from a UDL approach.  This paper, written by IDP consultant Loui Lord Nelson, reviews the research around the intersections of trauma-informed instruction and UDL instruction.

Crisis Education and Children with Disabilities

Learn about the situation of children with disabilities in conflict and other humanitarian crisis situations, the impact on their learning, and how to improve disability-inclusive education in these settings.

Intersectional Identities and Education

Learners with disabilities who belong to at least one other marginalized identity experience multiple forms of discrimination. These different identities can significantly influence access to education and community participation.

Assessing academic performance for students with disabilities: Universal Design for Assessment (UDA)

Explains what is Universal Design for Assessment (UDA) and how this principle for developing assessment tools can help more accurately measure the learning outcomes of students with disabilities.

IDP Reports

USAID Arithmetic and Inclusive Education Activity (AIE): Guide to Minimum Required Characteristics of an Inclusive Learning Environment for Children with Disabilities Reached through AIE

This publication provides guidance on creating an inclusive learning environment for young students with disabilities. It discusses the kind of attitudes, environment, and instruction that enable inclusive learning. These guidelines were produced during The Arithmetic and Inclusive Education Activity (AIE) in Tanzania. RTI International implemented this project, with funding support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and technical support from IDP.

U.S. Foreign Policy and Disability: Progress and Promise 2017

This report developed by Alice International, a parent company of IDP, provides a current assessment of the application of federal disability laws in U.S. foreign aid programs administered by the U.S. Department of State (DOS), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Peace Corps. The report details the extent to which these agencies have developed new planning or programs to ensure the inclusion of people with disabilities and removed the barriers to access to people with disabilities identified in NCD’s prior reports. It also examines the policies and practices of the Millennium Challenge Corporation. NCD’s study found that despite the potential for mainstreamed inclusion of disability in development programs, people with disabilities are still too often left behind in U.S. foreign aid programs.


National Strategic Plan for NDDs in Bangladesh

Based on the Situational Analysis of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) and autism, IDP staff supported the national strategic plan for NDDs in the country of Bangladesh.

External Links

Innovative Pedagogies: The what, why, and how of Universal Design for Learning and Social Emotional Learning

Students need quality, inclusive education. Many challenges stand in the way, including large class sizes, limited materials, and inadequate funding for teacher training. IDP’s Program Manager Kate Brolley describes strategies that can help address these challenges. In particular, useful strategies include Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) frameworks. Read Kate Brolley’s blog post at the Education Commission website.

Published Peer Review Articles on IDP's Work

Inclusion of Children with Learning Difficulties in Literacy and Numeracy in Ghana: A Literature Review

Since Rwanda ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), this country has experienced significant growth in inclusive education but also confronts challenges in this area. This study reviews current literature on students with disabilities and inclusive education in Ghana. This peer-reviewed publication in the International Journal of Disability, Development and Education was co-authored by IDP President Valerie Karr, IDP Executive Director Anne Hayes, and Special Education Professor at the University of Education in Winneba, Ghana, Samuel Hayford.


The Democratization of Inclusive Education: Political Settlement and the Role of Disabled Persons Organizations

This article was published in the Comparative Education Review, the flagship journal of the Comparative and International Educational Society. It is co-authored by IDP Technical Expert Christopher J. Johnstone, Lesotho National Federations of the Disabled Executive Director Nkhasi Sefuthi, and IDP Executive Director Anne Hayes.

Online Parent Training: A Pilot Programme for Chidren with Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities in Bangladesh

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the implementation of an online parent training programme in Bangladesh, designed to enhance parental knowledge of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders and related interventions. In addition, study participants were expected to become “Master Trainers” with the intention of training other parents in their local communities.

Method: This survey study assessed parental knowledge and programme effectiveness, such as potential online learning barriers, cultural sensitivities, and general course content feedback after each unit.

Results: The programme had an 81% completion rate (with parents completing all but one unit) with an average programme knowledge score of 86%. Parents felt that the course content was moderately difficult, the length of the units was appropriate, and the units were culturally sensitive. They requested more detailed lessons, specific case studies, and adaptation of the curriculum for older children.

Conclusion: The pilot programme merits the next phase of development, which includes local adaptation and translation. However, the findings are limited bythe small sample size.

No one left behind: a review of disability inclusive development efforts at the World Bank

In the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era of financing for development, the international community is placing substantial emphasis on the mantra ‘leave no one behind’ (Ki-moon 2015). To meet this commitment, an improved ability to assess disability inclusive development efforts of development agencies is required. This study piloted a methodology to monitor the inclusion of people with disabilities in development efforts of the World Bank and aligns findings against progress towards the SDGs by asking two research questions: 1) Are active World Bank projects inclusive of persons with disabilities (PWDs)? and 2) What areas of development and which SDG do disability-inclusive projects focus on? While disability inclusive projects make up only a small percentage of the overall active World Bank portfolio (2.0%), preliminary analysis indicates an investment focus in several areas, such as social protection systems and measures, technical assistance and partnerships, education, health, and affordable housing. The article closes by considering implications for future efforts to track the inclusiveness of development finance as we move forward in implementation of the SDGs.